Ready to hike with your dog? Get to know FELT!

Have you always wanted to take your dog hiking but aren’t sure how to get started? Well, you’re in luck, because it’s as easy as FELT! That’s Fitness, Equipment, Location, and Training! 

Getting started

First things first, make sure your dog has the needed fitness level for tackling the open trails. If you have any doubts, talk to your vet before your first hike. If your dog is very young, very old, overweight or brachiocephalic (smooshy face), you might need to start with shorter distances and be extra cautious of extreme temperatures. Just like us, dogs who haven’t hiked before or lately should start with shorter, slower hikes to build stamina and avoid overuse injuries.

Group of hikers with a golden colored dog in Hiking Hounds dog training class walk down trail lined with tall green grass and mountains in the background.


Next, make sure you have the right equipment. A well-fitting harness will take the pressure of your dog’s neck and give you something to grab onto if you need to help your dog down a ravine or over a log. A standard six-foot leash can be a great choice, especially on more crowded trails, but many dogs also benefit from a longer leash, such as a 15 or 20 feet long line. This allows your dog more freedom to sniff and explore while also keeping her safe and in accordance with leash laws. You’ll also want to bring along plenty of poop bags so that you can do your part to keep our trails safe and clean for other trail users. Finally, make sure you bring plenty of treats! You’ll want to reinforce your dog for making good choices while out and about.

Location, location

When it comes to picking the location, there are countless great online resources, such as the AllTrails app. Just remember that sometimes the information is not always perfectly accurate, so be sure to double-check signage when you arrive to be sure you’re on the right track. On hot days, trails near water or with generous tree coverage can make for a more enjoyable experience for dogs and humans alike! Along the Wasatch Front, you’ll also need to be sure to avoid trails in the watershed, as dogs are prohibited in these areas, and there’s a hefty fine for straying into these areas. They will be delineated with “No Dogs” signage at the trailheads.

Group of hikers with a red colored dog in Hiking Hounds dog training class walk across a stream with green forest behind them.

The right training for hiking

Finally, be sure your dog has the right training to be successful out on the trails with other people and dogs. Some skills that will make the hike more enjoyable for both of you include: walking politely on a leash, greeting (or ignoring) other dogs as needed, crossing natural obstacles such as rocks and logs, coming when called, and more. If your dog doesn’t yet have a firm grasp on these skills and you’d like some guidance, The Humane Society of Utah offers a series of Hiking Hounds training classes throughout the summer. Each class is self-contained and will help your dog learn the skills they need to be a successful hiker for years to come.

Rule of 3’s

3 days, 3 Weeks, and 3 Months

Bringing home a furry new family member can be one of the best days ever!  But transitioning to a new home is often one of the most stressful times in an animal’s life.

To help make this transition as smooth as possible, it can help to break it down to 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months.

First 3 Days

The first 3 days should be set aside for your dog or cat to decompress. It’s exciting to bring home a new family member and it can be easy to accidentally overwhelm them! Prepare a quiet place ahead of time where the dog or cat can relax and find their bearings. This space should be a safe place for them to rest and a place where they will not get into trouble when unsupervised. This might mean setting up a small room or bathroom for your cat as they can panic when given too much space too soon.  You might use a baby gate or exercise pen to create a safety zone for your new dog set up with food, water, and a soft place to rest. This can help cut down on accidents or chewed on household items while your new dog is adjusting to a new routine.

cat at the feet of a person


Follow your new pet’s lead and keep your interactions short at first. Give them plenty of chances to rest and decompress. You should avoid any unnecessary interactions that they may not be prepared to handle. A trip to the dog park or the pet store may cause a meltdown! Family members may want to visit right away, but this can be overwhelming. Save these visits for a few weeks down the road when you have had a chance to grow your relationship with your new pet.

First 3 Weeks

Over the next few weeks, you will start to see your new pet’s personality begin to emerge. Creating a consistent schedule with plenty of opportunities for you to reward your pet will help grow this new bond. This is a good time to start to establish a routine with meal times, regular potty breaks, exercise, and enrichment. This is also the time you will want to slowly integrate your new pet with other animals and children in the home. Any introductions should be done using short sessions and an adult should actively supervise all interactions.

Start to engage them with new toys and different activities to see what keeps them engaged and can burn their extra energy. This is also a great time to begin teaching some foundational skills using reward-based training. Cats love reinforcement too! So figure out what toys or treats they like. Use them to reward them for behaviors you want to see. 

Three Months

The next few months will be a chance to identify what routines work for you and your new pet. You should start to notice how much exercise they need and which activities they enjoy. Once they seem relaxed and comfortable with your routine at home, this is a great time to slowly start to integrate new activities like a trip to the park or introductions to family and friends.

Dog kissing a lady

This might also be the time that you start to notice some less desirable behaviors. Most of the time, you can work this through together with support from a behavior expert or veterinarian.

Remember that your new pet is doing their best, but they may not understand what you’re expecting of them. Keep in mind that their behavior may be species-appropriate or age-appropriate even if it’s not ideal for us. We can suggest more desirable outlets for those behaviors. Our behavior staff is happy to assess the situation and send you resources to help you and your pet. You can contact our behavior department for support.

What can happen when using E-collars, prong collars, choke chains on your dog?

With so many training options available, it can be hard to figure out which is the best method for you and your pet. The animal training industry remains unregulated, leading to various opinions about what methods are the “right” methods. Evidence supports the use of reward-based methods for all canine training, along with the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior.

Here’s why:

Scientific evidence in support of positive reinforcement-based training has been overwhelming. Studies show that positive reinforcement leads to improved welfare of companion animals, has a positive influence on the human-animal bond, and effectively achieves training goals.

  • The use of aversive-based methods and equipment, including e-collars, prong collars, choke chains, and other tools, can result in fallout, including:
    • Aggression (directed towards the handler or others)
    • Escape/avoidance behavior
    • Learned Helplessness (apathy)
    • Generalization of fear to other elements in the environment (including the handler)
  • The science of behavior across species is well-established and has been studied for decades through fields such as applied behavior analysis and animal welfare science. This field overwhelmingly proves that positive reinforcement is the most humane and effective method to teach and to modify behavior
  • Using punishment becomes habitual and easily escalates. This is not the relationship we want to promote for pet guardians in our community

In alignment with our mission to “eliminate pain, fear, and suffering in all animals,” the Humane Society of Utah chooses to use evidence-based force-free training. We want to grow the human-animal bond by increasing understanding between humans and their pets, establishing clear communication, and putting the welfare of both human and animal first.

Positive Reinforcement Training

With so many training options available, it can be hard to figure out which is the best method for you and your pet. The animal training industry remains unregulated, leading to a variety of opinions about what methods are the “right” methods. In alignment with our mission to “eliminate pain, fear, and suffering in all animals,” the Humane Society of Utah chooses to use evidence-based force-free training.

We are committed to a behavior program based on positive reinforcement. When training or handling animals, we advocate the use of humane training techniques utilizing evidence-based learning theories. We know that committing to positive reinforcement helps us build trusting relationships with animals while effectively meeting our training goals.

Scientific evidence in support of positive reinforcement-based training has been overwhelming.

Studies show that positive reinforcement leads to improved welfare of companion animals, has a positive influence on the human-animal bond, and is effective in achieving training goals.

We pride ourselves on remaining up-to-date and using the latest information that the scientific community has to offer regarding companion animal training and animal welfare. Our behavior staff are all certified dog trainers and regularly participate in continuing education to ensure that they are familiar with the latest understanding and best practices pertaining to animal behavior. We feel it is our responsibility to provide the most effective training options for our community.

Why Don’t We Use Correction-Based Training Methods?

  • The use of aversive-based methods and equipment, including e-collars, prong collars, choke chains, and other tools can result in fallout including:  
  • Aggression (directed towards the handler or others)
  • Escape/avoidance behavior  
  • Learned Helplessness (apathy)  
  • Generalization of fear to other elements in the environment (including the handler)  
  • We want to grow the human-animal bond by increasing understanding between humans and their pets, establishing clear communication, and putting the welfare of both human and animal first. 
  • The science of behavior across species is well-established and has been studied for decades through fields such as applied behavior analysis and animal welfare science. This field overwhelmingly proves that positive reinforcement is the most humane and effective method to teach and to modify behavior.
  • Using punishment becomes habitual and easily escalates. This is not the relationship we want to promote for pet guardians in our community.

Sources

American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior Position Statement on Punishment

Does training method matter? Evidence for the negative impact of aversive-based methods on companion dog welfare. Vieira de Castro et al. December 2020

University of Pennsylvania. “If You’re Aggressive, Your Dog Will Be Too, Says Veterinary Study.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 February 2009.

Efficacy of Dog Training With and Without Remote Electronic Collars vs. a Focus on Positive Reinforcement China et al. July 2020

Electronic Training Collars Present Welfare Risk to Pet Dogs. Cooper Et Al September 2014

IAABC Statement on LIMA

“What’s Wrong With This Picture? Effectiveness is not Enough” Dr .Susan Friedman

Collars or Harnesses?

Why Harnesses?

The area around a dog’s throat is one of the most vulnerable parts of their body. Research finds that when a dog pulls, or the leash is jerked, the pressure exerted on a dog’s neck by a flat collar is enough to risk damage to the dog’s neck. 

  • Collars should only be used to display ID tags, not for restraint or control. Harnesses are a better option to control your dog safely.
  • Slip and prong collars can cause injury to your dog’s neck and spine. Even when used correctly, these collars work by causing pain.

Prong collars, shock/E-collars, and choke chains also have long-term adverse behavioral effects, including problems with aggression, anxiety, and fear.

Safer Options

There are comfortable harnesses available that make walking your dog easier. Harnesses with a leash attachment at the dog’s chest and back help reduce pulling (like the Freedom No-Pull Harness shown here).

Our staff is happy to show you how to fit and use a new Freedom Harness. 

* Please note, some front-clip harnesses restrict movement to keep the dog from pulling, but those are meant for short-term management while you are working on training your dog to walk on a loose leash. A Y-shaped harness such as the Perfect Fit harness shown in the illustration below, is a better solution for long-term use as it allows the dog to move freely. 

 

Training

Once you have the right equipment, your dog can practice walking on a loose leash. If you make it rewarding for your dog to remain near your side, you will notice that your walks go more smoothly.  

Learn how to train your dog to walk on a loose leash.  

For more tips on loose leash walking, call the Animal Behavior and Training Department at 801-506-2417 or contact us for information.

Read our statement about using positive reinforcement training instead of correction-based methods.

How to Help With Resource Guarding

Resource guarding is a term used to describe a dog concerned about others (people or animals) taking away items he values such as food, treats, toys, or even a favorite spot. This can look like a dog standing frozen over his item of choice, running away with his treasure, growling, or even snapping and biting. This behavior can be managed and a training plan set in place so that everyone in the household can interact safely in a stress-free way.

What To Do

  • Monitor your dog’s body language so you can gauge his comfort level when he has things of value.

  • Keep high-value resources picked up unless you are training.

  • When feeding your dog or giving him special food items, crate him, or separate him from the rest of the family to prevent any accidents. We want you to avoid any confrontations while the dog decompresses and you begin to gain his trust.

  • Be aware that your dog may try to guard other things that you are not expecting, such as a bed, crate, a particular person or random household item.

  • Begin training a positive leave it and drop it cue. Please contact the behavior department for steps on how to do this. You can make trading your dog for treats and new items into a fun game!

The management portion described above will be crucial to the training process. We can help you create a training plan to reduce your dog’s anxiety around resources. If at any point your dog snaps or bites, please contact us immediately for help.

What to Avoid

  • Do not grab items from your dog or disturb him while he’s eating. This will only further convince him that you are out to take away all his favorite things. If the dog has an item that he shouldn’t, offer him a trade of something much better. Toss a piece of cheese, hot dog or lunch meat to him

  • Do not yell or punish your dog for running away with an item, growling, or any other guarding behavior. This will only make the behavior worse. Instead, trade your dog for something he finds even better than what he has in his mouth and then work on your “Drop It” cue.

Helping Your Leash Reactive Dog

Some dogs growl, bark, or lunge when they see other dogs while on a leash. Dogs may do this because they are fearful of the other dog, or they may be overly excited by other dogs and frustrated that they cannot approach. This behavior can be modified and is often best done with the support of a certified positive reinforcement trainer.

What To Do

  • Prevent the behavior – Walk your dog in quiet areas where you are unlikely to see other dogs. Be proactive and put distance between you and any dogs that you see approaching. You want to prevent your dog from practicing this behavior while on a leash.

  • Supervise your dog outside so that he does not practice barking at the fence. Be ready to redirect his attention with treats or toys.

  • Monitor your dog’s body language – If your dog begins to show discomfort (tense body, ears alert, a hard stare, etc.), you are too close to the other dog and should move further away.

  • Be prepared – with extra tasty high-value treats to reward calm behavior. When your dog can see another dog in the distance, give treats and lots of praise. Be sure to maintain a distance where your dog feels comfortable. If your dog is not taking treats he normally loves, then he is too close to the other dog.

  • Use appropriate equipment – Fit him with an appropriately-fitted harness and collar. There are many safe and humane harness and collar options. The most important thing to consider when choosing walking equipment is to make sure that your dog is comfortable and that he is not able to slip out of his harness.

  • Consult with a professional – Contact a certified positive reinforcement trainer. An experienced trainer can help you start the process of more relaxed leash walking. Adopters are encouraged to contact the behavior@utahhumane.org for tips or to set up a consultation appointment after adoption.

What to Avoid

  • Do not punish your dog- Yelling or giving corrections with tools like a prong or e-collar will only convince your dog to temporarily suppress his behavior. He will still feel afraid or frustrated by other dogs. The aggression will reappear later and may even be worse. Your dog may also begin to associate the punishment with other things that happen to be in the environment and develop new behavior issues.

  • Do not leave your dog unattended outside or at windows to bark at dogs passing by. The more he has the chance to practice this behavior, the stronger it will be.

Introducing Your Dog to Resident Pets

Introducing a new dog into your household is exciting! It’s also a very stressful transition for your new family member and a big change for resident pets. A slow introduction can help you avoid conflict. Follow the steps below to set your animals up for success.

What To Do

  • Allow Your New Dog to Decompress: As your new dog settles in, create a safe comfortable place in your home where he can eat, drink, and relax. Do not let your other pets bother him while he is in this area.

  • Introduce on Neutral Ground: Take both dogs for a leashed walk away from your home or yard. Allow the dogs to approach at their own pace and move the dogs away from each other if either seems uncomfortable or tense. You may need to take more than one walk for the dogs to get comfortable.

  • Bringing the Dogs Back Home: As long as the animals are calm with the above, try a supervised leashed meeting in the yard and then inside the house. Do not allow the dogs to crowd each in doorways or other close spaces. Pick up any toys, food bowls, and dog beds during the initial introduction.

  • Giving Appropriate Breaks: Make sure to give the dogs time apart from each other. The resident dog and the new dog should each have a comfy place with a bed, crate and water dish to decompress and relax

Monitor body language: Dogs communicate a variety of ways including stiffening, growling and snapping. If your dog growls or snaps, this is normal communication expressing some momentary anxiety or discomfort. Respect these signals and give the dogs space from each other. Ensure that each pet has an escape route and slow down the introduction. If you are unable to complete an introduction without growling or snapping, please contact behavior@utahhumane.org

How to Help Your Fearful Dog

Dogs can be fearful for a variety of reasons including a lack of socialization, scary experiences in their past, and/or genetics. Whatever the reason for their fear, there are steps you can take to ensure that you recognize when they are afraid and then to help them feel safe and secure.

Your dog can have different ways to tell you that they are feeling uncomfortable or afraid. The signs may be subtle, but it is important for you to recognize your dog’s body language as soon as possible and intervene.

Recognize Fearful Body language

  • Eyes wide and round

  • Lick lips

  • Duck away or retreat

  • Drooling

  • Tucked Tail

  • Roll onto their back

  • Pacing and Panting

  • Freezing

  • Baring teeth

  • Growling

  • Lunging and Barking

  • Snapping and Biting

What To Do

  • Identify what things trigger a fearful response from your dog. Limit their exposure to these triggers until you create a plan to slowly desensitize them.

  • When you notice your dog is showing fearful body language quickly and calmly remove them from the situation. Do not allow anyone to chase or corner your dog.

  • Keep a collar and tags on your dog. Ensure that they don’t have access to dash out the door or escape from your yard. Escape proof any fences and use doors, baby gates or a leash to prevent door dashing.

  • Create a “safe spot” for your dog in a quiet area of your home. Establish a predictable routine and allow them to gain confidence in you and their surroundings.

  • Find tasty treats that your dog LOVES (small pieces of chicken or hot dog often work) Begin treating them for calm and relaxed behavior. Start this process far away from the scary things and slowly move closer as they gain more confidence. Our behavior team can go over this process with you in more detail if you schedule a post adoption training consult.

What To Avoid

  • Do not force your dog to “face his fears”. This is often referred to as “flooding”. This outdated technique is more likely to increase the fear.

  • Do Not use punishment or corrections (leash corrections, prong collar, e-collar, etc). This will only increase the fear and anxiety. Your dog may begin to fear you as well. Using punishment has been linked with creating increased behavioral problems and even aggression. We would not recommend any trainer that suggests using these methods.

When to Seek Help

Many dogs and their people benefit from consulting with a certified positive trainer. A professional that has experience working with fearful dogs can create a customized plan for you. If your dog is showing any aggression please seek the help of a professional.

How to Help with Jumping

Jumping is a natural dog behavior. They may be trying to say hi or just too excited to contain themselves. This is especially common in young, energetic dogs that may not have had much training. This behavior can be very frustrating and even sometimes painful to live with. The good news is, there are plenty of ways to help your new family member learn better ways to greet people.

What To Do

  • Prevent the behavior. Use baby gates or a leash to contain your dog in situations where you know he is likely to jump.

  • Think about what you would like your dog to do instead of jumping. 4 feet on the floor? Run to grab a toy? Wait on his bed when guests come in the door? Set up training sessions to practice those behaviors.

  • Reward the behavior that you want and make it easy for your dog to succeed. Be prepared with treats and ask him to sit before he jumps. Have a toy ready to throw for him when you walk in the door. Give him lots of calm attention and praise when his feet are on the ground instead of you.

  • When he does jump, do not respond. Turn, or walk away and then immediately find a different behavior to ask him to do instead.

  • Practice! Jumping is fun and your dog has been able to get attention by jumping up. You must make it more rewarding to remain on the ground instead.

  • Consistency is the key to success. Make sure everyone in the household is on board with the training plan and is prepared to reward polite behavior. Be patient and persistent; often the dog has been successful in getting attention by jumping up for quite some time, and it may take him a while to learn that this method no longer works.

What to Avoid

  • Do not use punishment. Scolding, pushing, or kneeing the dog when he jumps tend to make the jumping worse. Remember that your dog is using this behavior to get attention and even negative attention is enough to reward the jumping.

  • Do not allow roughhousing. You want to encourage your dog to respect other people’s space. Instead redirect their energy to playing with toys, puzzles, or going for a run.